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Wine Making



Wine yeast will give better results than bread yeast. Bread yeast will produce a product with a finished alcohol volume of upto 14% but will also produce a slightly cloudy product. Wine yeast will produce upto 17% to 18% in alcohol content and has the advantage of producing a cheeselike sediment with a clear liquid above it which is easy to siphon off without any residue to cloud the final product. Wine yeast is often sold in packages/packets that specify the amount of wine to be made. This is usually from 1 to 5 gallons.

If you find that you like making wines, I strongly recommend an excellent book. Although it is currently out of print, you should be able to locate a copy through your local libraries, either directly or through loan. With any luck you can locate a copy of your own through the various used and antique book stores. Successful Wine Making at Home by H.E. Bravery. Since wine making has become a popular hobby, you will find a good number of suppliers for the containers, tools, supplies and recent books on this topic.

The term crock used on this page simply refers to the first fermentation container. Although traditionally done in a crock, it simply needs a container of suitable material. I have always used a large 12-quart stoneware dough bowl for this purpose and a good kitchen muslin (sold in cooking supply stores) to cover the bowl as the ingredients are fermenting.

At the stage where the liquid is decanted off into a glass jug, compensation must be made for the fermentation that is still ongoing and gases were still being produced. One method of stoppering the neck of the jug was a loose plug of cotton wool. More recently balloons were simply fitted over the neck and is the preferred method in many kitchens. A better method is to purchase a fermentation lock which is fitted over the neck of the jug and will indicate when all fermentation has ceased. All activity must cease before it can be decanted off into bottles and securely corked.



On This Page
ApricotColtsfootHawthornOrangeRedcurrant
BalmComfreyHerbParsleyRhubarb
BeetCowslipLavenderParsnipRose Hip
BlackberryDandelionLemonPlumRose Petal
BlackcurrantDateLemon BalmPotatoRosemary
BroomElderberryLoganberryPruneSage
BurnetElderflowerMayRaisinTangerine
CherryGooseberryMulberryRaspberryTea
ClaryGrapefruitOakleafRed CloverYarrow


Apricot Wine

Ingredients
6 lbs dried apricots
2 oranges
3½ lbs sugar
9 pints water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast
1 tbsp freshly made tea

Place apricots in crock with the oranges (cut-up) and their peels. Fold the orange peel and squeeze to extract as much oil out as you can. Boil 2 lbs of sugar in 7 pints of water for 2 minutes and pour over the contents of the crock while it is still boiling. Allow to cool, then add the yeast. Cover and allow to ferment for 10 days, crushing by hand each day and covering at once again. After 10 days, strain and wring out as dry as you can and put the strained liquid in a gallon jug. Boil the remaining sugar in the last 2 pints of water for 2 minutes and when cool add to the rest, then add the tea. Cover or fit with a fermentation lock and leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Balm Wine

Version 1:Put 10 lbs of brown sugar into 4 gallons of water and boil for over an hour, skimming thoroughly. Pour it into a crock to cool. Take 1¼ lbs of lemon balm tops (bruised) and place in a small cask with a little fresh yeast. When liquor is cool, pour it over the balm. Stir it up well and let the mixture stand for 24 hours, stirring it at frequent intervals. Close it up, lightly at first, and more securely after fermentation has ceased. When it has been standing for 6 to 8 weeks, bottle it, putting a piece of lump sugar into each bottle. Cork the bottles firmly and keep for at least a year before using it.

Version 2:

Ingredients
2 oz dried balm leaves
2 lemons
3 lb sugar
1 gallon water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Remove rinds from lemons, discard rinds and break up fruit. Combine balm and lemons in a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over them. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in a quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while it is still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add the yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as possible. Put the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add this to the rest. Cover or fit a fermentation lock. Continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.



Beet Wine

Ingredients
5 lbs of beets
2 oranges
2 lemons
4 lb sugar
5 quarts water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Peel beets and slice them finely (be careful not to lose any juice). Place them in 3 quarts of water and bring to a boil. Simmer gently for not more than 10 minutes. Strain to a crock and add half the sugar, stirring till dissolved. Cut up and add oranges and lemons and their peels. Allow to cool, then sprinkle yeast on top. Cover and allow to ferment for 10 days. Strain out oranges and lemons and wring out dry. Boil the rest of the water and sugar together for 2 minutes and when cool add this to crock. Place liquid in a gallon jug. Cover or fit with a fermentation lock and leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Blackberry Wine

Ingredients
3 lb blackberries
3 lb sugar
7 pints water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Crush fruit in a crock and add 1 quart of boiled water that has been allowed to cool. Mix well. Leave in a cool place for 24 hours, stirring a couple of times. Strain through muslin and squeeze gently. Discard fruit pulp. Boil 1/3 of the sugar in 2 quarts of water for one minute, then allow to cool. Mix with the juice and return to the crock. Add the yeast and allow to ferment for ten days. Cover crock with muslin or cheesecloth tied down. Into a gallon jug siphon off the top wine, avoiding the sediment at the bottom. Boil the second 1/3 of the sugar in 1 cup of the water for 1 minute and allow to cool. Add to jug. Plug the neck of the jug with cotton wool or a fermentation lock and allow to ferment in a warm place for 2 full weeks. Boil the remaining 1/3 of the sugar in the remaining cup of water for one minute and when cool add to the jug. Plug neck of jug again with cotton wool or fermentation lock and allow to sit until all fermenttion has ceased.



Blackcurrant Wine

Version 1:

Ingredients
3¾ lb blackcurrants
3½ lb sugar
7 pints water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Crush fruit in a crock and add 1 quart of boiled water that has been allowed to cool. Mix well. Leave in a cool place for 24 hours, stirring a couple of times. Strain through muslin and squeeze gently. Discard fruit pulp. Boil 1/3 of the sugar in 2 quarts of water for one minute, then allow to cool. Mix with the juice and return to the crock. Add the yeast and allow to ferment for ten days. Cover crock with muslin or cheesecloth tied down. Into a gallon jug siphon off the top wine, avoiding the sediment at the bottom. Boil the second 1/3 of the sugar in 1 cup of the water for 1 minute and allow to cool. Add to jug. Plug the neck of the jug with cotton wool or a fermentation lock and allow to ferment in a warm place for 2 full weeks. Boil the remaining 1/3 of the sugar in the remaining cup of water for one minute and when cool add to the jug. Plug neck of jug again with cotton wool or fermentation lock and allow to sit until all fermenttion has ceased.

Version 2: For every 3 quarts of juice, put the equal amount of water. For every 3 quarts of the resulting liquid, add 3 lbs of sugar. Place in a cask, preserving a little for filling up. Put the cask in a warm dry room and the liquor will ferment itself. Skim off the scum when the fermentation is done and fill up with any reserved liquor. When all has ceased working, pour 3 quarts of brandy to each 40 quarts of wine. Bung closed for nine months, then bottle it and drain the thick part through a jelly bag till it is clear and bottle that. Keeps for 10 or 12 months.



Broom Wine

Ingredients
2 oz dried broom flowers
1 gallon water
2 lemons, quartered
1 lb raisins
2½ lbs sugar
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Place all ingredients (except sugar, yeast and water) into a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the contents of the crock. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily and covering immediately again. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Place the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation ceases.



Burnet Wine

Ingredients
3 oz burnet herb
1 lb raisins
1 lb wheat
2 oranges, quartered
2 lemons, quartered
3 lb sugar
1 gallon water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Place all ingredients (except sugar, yeast and water) into a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the contents of the crock. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily and covering immediately again. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Place the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation ceases.



Cherry Wine

Ingredients
8 lb black cherries
7 pints water
2½ lbs sugar
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Crush fruit in a crock and add 1 quart of boiled water that has been allowed to cool. Mix well. Leave in a cool place for 24 hours, stirring a couple of times. Strain through muslin and squeeze gently. Discard fruit pulp. Boil 1/3 of the sugar in 2 quarts of water for one minute, then allow to cool. Mix with the juice and return to the crock. Add the yeast and allow to ferment for ten days. Cover crock with muslin or cheesecloth tied down. Into a gallon jug siphon off the top wine, avoiding the sediment at the bottom. Boil the second 1/3 of the sugar in 1 cup of the water for 1 minute and allow to cool. Add to jug. Plug the neck of the jug with cotton wool or a fermentation lock and allow to ferment in a warm place for 2 full weeks. Boil the remaining 1/3 of the sugar in the remaining cup of water for one minute and when cool add to the jug. Plug neck of jug again with cotton wool or fermentation lock and allow to sit until all fermentation has ceased.



Clary Wine

Ingredients
3 to 4 oz clary sage flowers
1 lb raisins
2 lemons, quartered
3 lb sugar
1 gallon water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Place all ingredients (except sugar, yeast and water) into a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the contents of the crock. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily and covering immediately again. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Place the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation ceases.



Coltsfoot Wine

Version 1:

Ingredients
2 quarts coltsfoot flowers
1 gallon of water
3 lbs sugar
¼ cup raisins
3 oranges
2 lemons
½ tbsp yeast

Collect 2 quarts of coltsfoot flowers, then spread them out on trays to dry. When quite dry, place them into a crock and pour the boiling water over them and let them stand for 3 days, stirring 3 times each day. Strain off the liquid, add the sugar and boil well for half an hour. When cold, put the yeast on a piece of toast and place in the liquid to ferment. Next day, remove the toast and put the liquid into a jug and add the raisins, oranges and lemons, cut up. Use cotton wool or a fermentation lock and allow to stand for 3 months and then it will be ready to bottle.

Version 2:

Ingredients
1 gallon coltsfoot flowers
3 lb sugar
1 gallon water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast
juice of 2 lemons

Remove the petals and place in a crock. Pour 3 quarts of boiling water over and leave to soak for 7 days, covered. Stir each day. Strain, wringing as much from the petals as possible. Return the liquid to the crock. Boil half the sugar in a pint of water and when cool add to the liquid. Add the yeast and the juice of 2 lemons. Cover with muslin and ferment for 7 days. Siphon liquid off into a gallon jug avoiding the sediment at the bottom. Boil the rest of the sugar in the remaining pint of water and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or use a fermentation lock and leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Comfrey Wine

NOTE: Comfrey is no longer recommended for internal use. This recipe is presented for its historical value.

Ingredients
4 lbs comfrey root (weighed after being cut up)
1 gallon water
3 lbs sugar to each gallon of water

Clean, peel and cut up the roots into pieces about 4 or 5 inches long. Boil till quite tender and then remove the lid to allow the strong smell to escape. Strain off the liquid and to every gallon allow 3 lbs of sugar. Boil these together for 45 minutes, then pour the liquor into a pan and when tepid, add a very little yeast on toast. Let stand for at least 10 days covered over, and stir it every day. Then put it into a cask or stone jar to work. In 6 or 7 months, the wine will be ready to bottle.



Cowslip Wine

Version 1: To 5 quarts of water add 2 lbs of sugar and make a syrup. While still hot, pour syrup over a quart of cowslips (just the yellow flower part). Let stand for 24 hours. Strain and add 2 tbsp of yeast spread on a piece of toast. Leave standing for 10 days, sitrring at least once every day for the first 4 days. When the 10 days are up, strain and bottle. Cover crock with muslin, tied down, while wine is working.

Version 2: Allow 3 lbs of sugar, 2 lemons and 1 gallon of cowslips (just the yellow flower part) to 1 gallon of water. Boil the sugar and the water together, and when this has cooled to milk heat, pour over the cowslips and the lemon peel. Ferment with fresh brewer's barm (or 1 pkg wine yeast) spread on a slice of toast, allowing 1 tbsp of barm to 3 gallons of liquor.

Version 3: To 2 gallons of water allow 2½ lbs of sugar, 2 lemons, and 4 quarts of cowslip flowers. Put the water and sugar into kettle and bring to the boil. Boil for 30 minutes, carefully removing any scum that rises. Pour this liquid into a tub over the thinly peeled rind of the lemons and leave to cool. When cold add the strained juice of the lemons and the cowslip flowers, using only the tops. Cover and leave the mixture to stand for 2 days, stirring well every 2 or 3 hours. Put into a barrel and let it stand 3 weeks or a month. When bottling, place a lump of sugar into each bottle.



Dandelion Wine

Version 1: Collect 6 quarts of dandelion flowers. Spread out on newspapers for a few hours to allow bugs to crawl off. Wash the flowers, remove the petals and place in a crock. Pour 3 quarts of boiling water over the flowers, then cover for 24 hours to make a strong tea. Strain the liquid into a large stainless steel, enamel or other non-reactive material pot. Add 1 orange (quartered), ½ of a lemon cut into 2 or 3 pieces and 1 tsp of crushed fresh ginger root. Boil this combination for 30 minutes, then strain. To this hot liquid add 2 and 2/3 cups of sugar. Stir till sugar is well-dissolved. Pour liquid into a sterile crock.

When liquid has cooled to lukewarm, stir in 1¼ tsp dry yeast which has been dissolved in a small amount of the warm liquid. Add the dissolved yeast mixture to the crock and stir in well. Cover with muslin and use a large rubber band to hold the cloth over the top of the crock. (You can also use a large jug with a fermentation lock and wine yeast). Allow to sit while the mixture works or bubbles (this is the fermentation stage). This will take about 10 days and it will not be attractive to look at.

When the mixture has finished working and seems pretty quiet and still, siphon off the liquid into a large bottle or jug (fish tank tubing works well). Siphon off the upper portion without disturbing the sediment at the bottom. Place a rubber balloon over the top of the bottle (this allows for any residual gaseous action which would pop a cap off the bottle). After one month, either siphon or carefully pour off the top liquid, avoiding the sediment, and bottle and cork. Allow to age at least 6 months before using.

Version 2: Collect 1 gallon of flower heads and remove the petals. Place petals in crock and pour over them 3 quarts of boiling water. Leave to soak for seven days, well covered, and stir daily. Strain and wring out fairly tightly and return the liquid to the crock. Boil 1½ lbs sugar in 1 pint of water and when cool, add to the liquid. Add 1 oz of yeast and the juice of 2 lemons. Cover and ferment for seven days. Then pour carefully into a gallon jar, leaving as much sediment behind as you can. After this, boil another 1½ lbs sugar in 1 pint of water and when cool add to the liquid. Cover neck with muslin or a fermentation lock and leave till all fermentation has ceased. Bottle as in version 1.



Date Wine

Ingredients
3 lb dates
2 lemons
6 oranges
2 lb sugar
9 pint water
1 oz yeast
1 tbsp freshly made tea

Place dates in crock with the oranges (cut-up) and their peels. Fold the orange peel and squeeze to extract as much oil out as you can. Boil 2 lbs of sugar in 7 pints of water for 2 minutes and pour over the contents of the crock while it is still boiling. Allow to cool, then add the yeast. Cover and allow to ferment for 10 days, crushing by hand each day and covering at once again. After 10 days, strain and wring out as dry as you can and put the strained liquid in a gallon jug. Boil the remaining sugar in the last 2 pints of water for 2 minutes and when cool add to the rest, then add the tea. Cover or fit with a fermentation lock and leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Elderberry Wine

Version 1: You will need a peck of elderberries for each gallon of water. To each gallon of elderberry juice use 3 lbs of sugar, ½ lb ground ginger, 6 whole cloves and 1 lb raisins. Use ¼ pint of brandy to each gallon of wine. Use 3 or 4 tbsp yeast for every 9 gallons of wine.

Pour boiling water onto berries and let stand 24 hours. Strain through a bag or sieve breaking the berries to extract the juice. Measure the liquid and to each gallon allow 3 lbs of sugar. Boil the juice with the sugar and other ingredients for 1 hour, simmering all the time. Let stand till lukewarm. Pour into a clean dry cask with yeast. Let ferment about 2 weeks and add brandy. Bung up cask and let remain for 6 months before bottling.

Version 2: Collect 3 gallons of ripe berries. Place into a crock and pour 2 gallons of boiling water over the berries. Cover and leave in a warm place for 24 hours. Strain, pressing the juice well out. Measure juice and allow 3 lbs of sugar, ½ oz of ginger and ¼ oz of cloves to each gallon. Boil for 20 minutes slowly, then strain it into a cask and ferment when lukewarm. Let it remain till it stops working before bunging. Bottle in six months. If a weaker wine is preferred, use 4 gallons of water to 3 gallons of berries and leave for two days before straining. If a cask is not available, large stone jars will do and then the wine need not be bottled.



Elderflower Wine

Ingredients
1 gallon elderflowers
1 gallon water
3½ lbs sugar
1 oz yeast
2 lemons

Boil half the sugar in half a gallon of water and while boiling, pour over the flowers in the crock. Add the juice of the lemons and when the mixture is cool, add the yeast. Cover and ferment for 7 days. Strain out flowers and wring out well, but not too dry. Put the strained liquid in a gallon jar. Boil the rest of the sugar and water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the rest. Cover or use fermentation lock and leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Gooseberry Wine

Ingredients
6 lbs gooseberries
3½ lbs sugar
7 pints water
1 pkg all purpose wine yeast

Crush fruit in crock and pour on 1 quart of boiled water that has been allowed to cool. Mix well. Take 1/3 of the sugar and boil for 1 minute in 3 pints of water. Allow syrup to cool, then stir into pulp. Add yeast and ferment 3 days. Strain pulp through fine muslin and wring out dry as you can. Put strained liquid into a gallon jar and discard the pulp. Boil another 1/3 of the sugar in 1 pint of water for 1 minute and when it has cooled, add it to the rest. Cover neck of jar or fit a fermentaiton lock and continue to ferment in a warm place for 10 days more. Siphon off the liquid into another container, leaving the sediment behind. Clean and sterilize jar and return liquid to it. Boil remaining 1/3 of the sugar in the last 1 pint of water. Allow to cool and add to rest. Refit fermentation lock or cover again. Allow to remain in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased. If there is not enough room in the jar for any of the last lot of syrup, place in a sterile jar and refrigerate until fermentation has reduced the volume of the liquid and then add the remainder. Allow to sit until all fermentation has ceased.



Grapefruit Wine

Ingredients
8 large grapefruit
1 lb raisins
3½ lbs sugar
½ baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast
1 gallon water

Drop the grapefruits (whole) into boiling water and push them down below the surface. Remove them and discard the water. Cut fruit into small pieces and combine with the raisins in a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiled water which has cooled, over them. Cover and leave to soak for 48 hours, crushing and pressing the peel to extract the oil. Boil half the sugar in a quart of water for 2 minutes and when cooled, add this to the pulp. Add the yeast. Ferment in a warm place for 5 days. Crush, then strain through fine muslin and wring out dry. Discard pulp and return the liquid to the crock. Allow to ferment for another 10 days. Carefully our off into a gallon jar, leaving as much of the sediment behind as possible. Boil the rest of the water and sugar together and when cool, add to the rest. Cover or fit the neck with a fermentation lock and allow to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.



Hawthorn Blossom Wine

Ingredients
2 quarts of hawthorn flowers
3½ lbs sugar
1 oz yeast
1 gallon water

Gather flowers when they are about to drop off and shake into a crock. Pour 3 quarts of boiling water over the flowers and leave for 7 days, well covered. Stir daily and cover again at once. Strain and wring out fairly tightly and return the liquid to the crock. Boil half the sugar in a pint of water and when cool, add to the liquid. Add the yeast. Cover and ferment for 7 days. Pour off into a gallon jar being careful to leave the sediment behind. Boil the rest of the sugar in the remaining pint of water and when cool, add to the rest. Cover or fit the neck of the jar with a fermentation lock. Leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Herb Wines (quick)

  1. Choose a wine which will compliment the herb being used.
  2. Coarsely chop ½ to ¾ cup of herb depending on its strength. Place in a wide-mouthed jar. Add 1 pint of wine then set aside for 2 weeks, covered. Strain and place wine in a fancy bottle with your own label.
  3. Suitable herbs are borage, clary sage, clove, carnation, elderflowers, anise hyssop, lavender, lemon balm, lemon verbena, mints, rosemary and sweet woodruff.



Lavender Wine

Ingredients
½ oz dried lavender buds
1 gallon water
2½ lbs sugar
1 lb golden raisins
3 oranges (quartered)
1 pkg all-purpose wine yeast

Put lavender, raisins, and oranges in a crock. Pour ½ gallon boiling water over contents of crock and allow to sit for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add the yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Put the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool add this to the rest. Cover or fit with a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.



Lemon Wine

NOTE: This wine is not usually made for drinking purposes, but rather for blending with fruit wines which do not measure up sufficiently in acid requirements.

Ingredients
8 lemons
4 lbs sugar
½ oz yeast
1 gallon water

Drop the whole lemons into boiling water. Push them under the surface of the water and then take them out and discard the water. Cut the lemons into small pieces, place in crock and pour over them ½ gallon of boiling water which has been allowed to cool. Cover and leave to soak for 48 hours, crushing and pressing the peel to extract the oil. Then boil half the sugar in a quart of water for 2 minutes and when cooled, add this to the orange pulp. Add the yeast. Ferment in a warm place for 5 days. Then crush and strain through muslin, wringing out as dry as possible. Discard pulp and return liquid to crock. Allow to sit for another 10 days. Carefully pour off into a gallon jug leaving behind as much sediment as possible. Boil the remaining water and sugar togethr and when cool, add to the rest. Cover neck of jug or use a fermentation lock. Continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.



Lemon Balm Wine

Source: 1788 Receipt Book of Richard Briggs) (ver. 1) and Herbal Simples by Dr. Fernie - 1897 (ver. 2)

Version 1: Place 20 lbs of sugar in 4½ gallons of water. Boil gently for 1 hour and place in a tub to cool. Place 2 lbs lemon balm tops (bruised) into a barrel with a little new yeast. Pour cooled liquor over and stir well together. Let stand 24 hours, stirring often. Bung tight. Improves with age.

Version 2: Boil 10 lbs moist sugar in 4 gallons of water for over an hour and skim well. Pour into crockery pot to cool. Bruise 1½ lbs lemon balm tops and place in a small cask with yeast spread on toast. Pour cooled liquid over balm and stir together well. Let stand 24 hours stirring frequently. Close it up lightly at first and more securely after fermentation ceases. After 6 to 8 weeks, bottle it up putting a lump of sugar into each bottle. Cork bottle well and keep at least one year before using.



Loganberry Wine

Ingredients
3 to 4 lbs loganberries
3 lbs sugar
1 pkg wine yeast
7 pints water

Crush fruit in crock and pour on 1 quart of boiled water that has been allowed to cool. Mix well. Take 1/3 of the sugar and boil for 1 minute in 3 pints of water. Allow syrup to cool, then stir into pulp. Add yeast and ferment 7 days. Strain pulp through fine muslin and wring out dry as you can. Put strained liquid into a gallon jar and discard the pulp. Boil another 1/3 of the sugar in 1 pint of water for 1 minute and when it has cooled, add it to the rest. Cover neck of jar or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place for 10 days more. Siphon off the liquid into another container, leaving the sediment behind. Clean and sterilize jar and return liquid to it. Boil remaining 1/3 of the sugar in the last 1 pint of water. Allow to cool and add to rest. Refit fermentation lock or cover again. Allow to remain in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased. If there is not enough room in the jar for any of the last lot of syrup, place in a sterile jar and refrigerate until fermentation has reduced the volume of the liquid and then add the remainder. Allow to sit until all fermentation has ceased.



May wine

Yield: 3 quarts

Ingredients
12 or more sprigs of sweet woodruff
3 pints fresh, ripe strawberries
2 bottles Rhine or Moselle wine
½ cup sugar
woodruff sprigs and blossoms for garnish
edible flower blossoms such as violet, Johnny-jump-up, pansy, rose petals<
1 bottle of champagne

Heat the woodruff sprigs on a baking sheet in a low oven for a few minutes to bring out the scent of coumarin. Rinse the berries lightly and pick them over, reserving a pint of the best for garnish. Remove stems for 2 pints of the berries and taste for sweetness. Add 1 pint of berries to each of 2 pitchers along with half the sugar, if the berries are tart, less if sweet. Crush berries with sugar, then add the woodruff (dividing it evenly). Pour a bottle of wine into each pitcher and stir well. Cover pitchers with plastic wrap and refrigerate upto 24 hours. To serve, strain the wine into a punch bowl. Stir in the bottle of champagne. Garnish with reserved strawberry, woodruff and flowers.



Mulberry Wine

On each gallon of ripe mulberries, pour one gallon of boiling water and let them stand for 2 days. Then squeeze all through a sieve or jelly bag. Wash out the crock and return the liquid to it. Put in the sugar at the rate of 3 lbs to each gallon of the liquid. Stir up till quite dissolved, then put the liquid into a cask. Let the cask be raised a little on one side till fermentation ceases, then bung down. If the liquor be clear, it may be bottled in 4 months time. Into each bottle put one clove and a small lump of sugar and the bottles should be kept in a moderate temperature. The wine may be used in a year from time of bottling.



Oakleaf Wine

Presented for its historical value.

NOTE:The shoots for this must be gathered very young and 16 lbs of sugar are allowed to 10 young oak leaves, 4 gallons of water and 4 lemons. For this quantity use 4 oz of yeast.

Put the oak leaves in to a pan and pour the water over them. Let them steep for 8 hours. Add the sugar and the lemons (cut into slices) and let the whole simmer for 20 minutes. Let it cool down and then add the yeast when it is lukewarm. Let stand for 36 hours, then place in a cask after fermentation has ceased. It should be ready for use in 6 to 8 months.



Orange Wine

Ingredients
12 large oranges
4 lbs sugar
½ oz yeast
1 gallon water

Drop whole oranges into boiling water, then push each one under the surface. Remove and discard the water. Cut the oranges into small pieces, place in crock and pour over them ½ gallon of boiled water which has been allowed to cool. Cover and leave to soak for 48 hours, crushing and pressing the peel to extract the oil. Boil half the sugar in a quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to pulp. Add yeast. Ferment in a warm place for 5 days. Crush, strain through fine muslin and wring out dry. Discard pulp and return the fermenting liquid to the crock. Allow to ferment for another 10 days. Pour off into a gallon jar leaving as much of the sediment behind as possible. Boil the rest of the water and sugar together and when cool add to the rest. Cover or fit a fermentation lock to the neck of the jar and continue to set in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.



Parsley Wine

Ingredients
2 oz dried parsley
1 oz dried mint
½ oz dried sage
1 gallon water
2 oranges, quartered
2 lemons, quartered
3 lbs sugar
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Place all ingredients (except sugar, yeast and water) into a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the contents of the crock. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily and covering immediately again. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Place the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation ceases.



Parsnip Wine

Version 1: Take 15 lbs of sliced parsnips and boil till quite soft in 5 gallons of water. Run through a sieve, squeezing the liquid well out of them. Add 3 lb of coarse lump sugar to every gallon of liquid. Boil the whole for 45 minutes. When it is nearly cold, add a little yeast on toast. Let remain in a tub for 10 days, stirring it from the bottom each day. Place into a cask for a year. As it works over, fill it up every day.

Version 2:
Ingredients
2 lbs parsnips
½ lb raisins
2 oranges
2 lemons
4 lbs sugar
5 quarts water
1 oz yeast

Scrub and grate parsnips, then simmer gently for 5 minutes in 3 quarts water. Remove all scum. Strain and add half the sugar at once and stir till all is dissolved. Add cut-up raisins and cut-up oranges and lemons and their peels. Allow to cool and then add yeast. Cover and ferment for 10 days. Strain and wring out as dry as possible. Boil the rest of the sugar and water together for 1 minute and when cool, add this to the rest. Put into a gallon bottle and cover or fit fermentation lock and leave till all fermentation has ceased.

Version 3:
Ingredients
4 lbs parsnips
4 oranges
3½ lbs sugar
5 quarts water
1 oz yeast

Directions are the same as in version 2.



Plum Wine

Version 1:
NOTE:Dark red, fully ripe fruits must be used for this port style wine.

Ingredients
10 lbs plums
7 pints water
3½ lbs sugar
1 pkg port type wine yeast

Place all ingredients (except sugar, yeast and water) into a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the contents of the crock. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily and covering immediately again. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Place the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation ceases.

Version 2:

Ingredients
8 lbs plums, any fully ripe red variety
7 pints water
3 lbs sugar
1 pkg burgandy style wine yeast

Directions are the same as in Version 1.



Potato Wine

Ingredients
2 lbs potatoes
1 lb raisins
4 oranges
4 lbs sugar
1 oz yeast
5 quarts water

Scrub and grate potatoes and place in ½ gallon of water. Bring slowly to boling point and simmer for 1 minute. Strain into crock. Add half the sugar at once and stir till all is dissolved. Add cut-up raisins and cut-up oranges with their peels. Allow to cool and add yeast. Cover and ferment for 10 days. Strain, wringing out pulp as dry as possible. Boil remaining water and sugar together for 1 minute and when cool add this to the rest. Place all into a gallon bottle and cover or fit a fermentation lock to the neck. Leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Prune Wine

Ingredients
6 lbs prunes
2 lemons
3½ lbs sugar
9 pints water
1 oz yeast

Wash prunes and place in crock. Boil 2 lbs sugar in 7 pints of water and pour over fruit while still boiling. Allow to cool and add the yeast. Cover and ferment for 10 days, crushing well each day as soon as fruit becomes soft. After 10 days, crush well and strain out the solids. Wring out as dry as possible and put the liquid in a gallon jar. Boil the rest of the sugar in the remaining 2 pints of water and when cool, add to the rest. Cover neck of jar or fit a fermentation lock. Leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Raisin Wine

Ingredients
3 lbs raisins
3 lemons
2 lbs sugar
9 pints water
1 oz yeast
1 tbsp freshly made tea

NOTE: For a dry wine use 1¼ lbs sugar.

Place raisins with sliced lemons and the tea in a crock. Boil all the sugar in all the water and add to the rest while still boiling. When cool, add the yeast and ferment for 14 days, covered, stirring daily and covering again at once. Strain and wring out as dry as you can and put the strained liquid into a gallon jar. Cover or fit a fermentation lock to the neck and leave till all fermentation has ceased.



Raspberry Wine

This version makes a light, dry wine.

Ingredients
4 lbs raspberries
2½ lbs sugar
7 pints water (divided)
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Crush fruit in a crock and add 1 quart of boiled water that has been allowed to cool. Mix well. Leave in a cool place for 24 hours, stirring a couple of times. Strain through muslin and squeeze gently. Discard fruit pulp. Boil 1/3 of the sugar in 2 quarts of water for one minute, then allow to cool. Mix with the juice and return to the crock. Add the yeast and allow to ferment for ten days. Cover crock with muslin or cheesecloth tied down. Into a gallon jug siphon off the top wine, avoiding the sediment at the bottom. Boil the second 1/3 of the sugar in 1 cup of the water for 1 minute and allow to cool. Add to jug. Plug the neck of the jug with cotton wool or a fermentation lock and allow to ferment in a warm place for 2 full weeks. Boil the remaining 1/3 of the sugar in the remaining cup of water for one minute and when cool add to the jug. Plug neck of jug again with cotton wool or fermentation lock and allow to sit until all fermentation has ceased.

NOTE: For a sweeter wine use the same recipe as above but add 1 lb of raisins during the first 7 days of fermentation and increase sugar to 3½ lbs.



Red Clover Blossom Wine

Version 1:

Ingredients
1 gallon red clover blossoms
10 lbs sugar
1 dozen lemons, cut up
1 box raisins
5 gallons boiling water
5 yeast cakes or 5 pkgs active dry yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Combine clover blossoms, sugar, lemons, and raisins in a large crock. Pour in boiling water and stir to dissolve the sugar. Cool to lukewarm. Mix yeast with a small amount of lukewarm liquid and add to crock. Mix well. Cover with a cloth and tie down around the top. Let stand for 5 days at room temp, stirring occasionally. Strain through a double thickness of cheesecloth and pour into glass jugs. Cover top with balloons till wine stops work and bubbling. Allow to age a bit before using.

Version 2:Collect 3 quarts of red clover flowers. Pull off petals and place in a crock (or other fermenting vessel). Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the petals and leave well covered for 12 hours. Boil 1½ lbs sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool add to the crock. Add yeast and allow to ferment for 7 days. Strain out flowers, but do not squeeze, and place liquid into a gallon jar. Boil another 1½ lbs of sugar in 1 quart of water and when cool add to the jar. Cover neck of jar with muslin or a fermentation lock. Leave till all fermentation has ceased, then bottle.



Redcurrant Wine

Ingredients
3 lbs redcurrants
7 pints water
3 lbs sugar
1 pkg wine yeast

Crush fruit in a crock and add 1 quart of boiled water that has been allowed to cool. Mix well. Leave in a cool place for 24 hours, stirring a couple of times. Strain through muslin and squeeze gently. Discard fruit pulp. Boil 1/3 of the sugar in 2 quarts of water for one minute, then allow to cool. Mix with the juice and return to the crock. Add the yeast and allow to ferment for ten days. Cover crock with muslin or cheesecloth tied down. Into a gallon jug siphon off the top wine, avoiding the sediment at the bottom. Boil the second 1/3 of the sugar in 1 cup of the water for 1 minute and allow to cool. Add to jug. Plug the neck of the jug with cotton wool or a fermentation lock and allow to ferment in a warm place for 2 full weeks. Boil the remaining 1/3 of the sugar in the remaining cup of water for one minute and when cool add to the jug. Plug neck of jug again with cotton wool or fermentation lock and allow to sit until all fermenttion has ceased.

NOTE: For a light medium-sweet wine increase redcurrants to 4 lbs and sugar to 3½ lbs.



Rhubarb Wine

Version 1: Chop the stalks of the rhubarb coarsely and to every quart add 3 quarts of water and let stand for 2 or 3 days. At the end of that time strain through a cloth and to every quart add 1 lb of sugar. Let this remain in jars to ferment, skimming every day till fermentation ceases and then bottle.

Version 2:
Ingredients
20 lbs rhubarb
5 gallons water (boiled and allowed to cool)
12 lbs lump sugar
1 pint French brandy
½ lb barley sugar
½ oz isinglass
2 oranges
2 lemons

Wipe the rhubarb with a damp cloth and slice it thinly into a crock. Pour the water over it and allow it to stand, closely covred, for 4 days. Strain through a sieve or jelly bag, pressing pulp gently to extract all the juice. Add the sugar, sitrring occasionally till all is dissolved, then turn into a cask and cover the bung-hole with a folded cloth. As soon as fermentation ceases, add the brandy, then bung the cask closely and allow it to stand undisturbed for 3 months. Rack the wine into a clean, dry cask, add the thinly-cut orange and lemon peel and the barley sugar (finely powdered) and the isinglass dissolved in warm water. bung the cask closely and allow it to stand in a cool, dry place for at least 12 months; the longer the better. Then bottle, cork and seal securely. Store for at least 6 months after bottling.



Rose Hip Wine

Ingredients
4 lbs rose hips
3 lbs sugar
1 gallon water
1 oz yeast

Wash hips well. Crush hips with a mallet or chop them. Place in a crock and pour on ½ gallon of boiling waer. Boil half the sugar in a quart of water for 2 minutes and when cooled a little, add to the rest. Add yeast and ferment for 7 days. Strain out solids and put strained liquid into a gallon jar. Boil the rest of the sugar in the remaining water for 2 minutes and allow to cool well before adding to the rest. Cover or fit fermentation lock to the neck of the jar and leave to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.



Rose Petal Wine

NOTE: If at all possible, use strongly scented rose petals.

Version 1:

Ingredients
3 quarts rose petals
1 gallon water
3 lbs sugar
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast
2 lemons

Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the petals in a crock; cover well and leave for 48 hours, stirring often. Boil half the sugar in a quart of water for 2 minutes and when this is cool, add to the petal mixture and ferment for 3 days. Strain and wring out well and return the liquid to the crock and let it ferment for another 10 days. Pour the liquid into a gallon jar, leaving as much of the sediment behind as you can. Boil the rest of the sugar and water and when cool, add to the rest together with the juice of the lemons. Cover again or use a fermentation lock and leave till all fermentation has ceased.

Version 2:
Ingredients
2 to 3 quarts of freh rose petals
1 gallon water
2½ lbs sugar
1 lb golden raisins
3 oranges
1 pkg all-purpose wine yeast (labelled for 1 to 5 gallons)

Place petals in crock and pour 1 gallon boiling water over. Allow to sit for 24 hours. Strain into a large kettle and add raisins and oranges (quartered). Boil for 30 minutes, then strain and add the sugar. Stir till dissolved. Pour into crock when it has cooled to lukewarm. Stir in the yeast, cover with muslin (tied-down) and allow to ferment till all activity ceases. Siphon off the clear liquid into a gallon jug. Cover with a balloon or fermentation lock or piece of cotton wool fitted loosely. Leave for 1 month, then bottle.



Rosemary Wine

Version 1:

Ingredients
3 cups any white wine
3 tbsp lemon juice
6 tbsp honey
3 tbsp fresh rosemary leaves

Bruise rosemary leaves and add to other ingredients in a pan. Bring to a boil, then simmer 5 minutes. Strain. Serve warm or chilled.

Version 2:
Ingredients
1 oz dried rosemary (uncrushed)
1 gallon water
2½ lbs sugar
½ lb dark raisins
2 oranges
1 lemon
1 pkg all-purpose wine yeast

Place rosemary, raisins, oranges (cut up), and lemon (cut up) in a crock. Boil ½ gallon of water and pour over the contents of the crock. Cover and allow to sit for 2 to 3 hours. Boil half the sugar in a quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the crock while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough add the yeast. Cover again and allow to fement in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily. Strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Put the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool add this to the rest. Cover or fit with a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.

Version 3: Chop up sprigs of fresh green rosemary and pour on them white wine and leave to steep for 3 or 4 days. Strain and bottle and it is ready for use.
NOTE: Also works with borage, clary sage, clove carnation, elderflowers, lavender, lemon balm, lemon verbena, mint and sweet woodruff.



Sage Wine

Ingredients
3 oz dried sage
1 lb raisins
1 oz dried mint
1 lb wheat
2 lemons, quartered
2½ lbs sugar
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Place all ingredients (except sugar, yeast and water) into a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the contents of the crock. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily and covering immediately again. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Place the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation ceases.



Tangerine Wine

Ingredients
20 tangerines
4 lbs sugar
½ oz yeast
1 gallon water

Drop whole tangerines into boiling water, then push each one under the surface. Remove and discard the water. Cut the tangerines into small pieces, place in crock and pour over them ½ gallon of boiled water which has been allowed to cool. Cover and leave to soak for 48 hours, crushing and pressing the peel to extract the oil. Boil half the sugar in a quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to pulp. Add yeast. Ferment in a warm place for 5 days. Crush, strain through fine muslin and wring out dry. Discard pulp and return the fermenting liquid to the crock. Allow to ferment for another 10 days. Pour off into a gallon jar leaving as much of the sediment behind as possible. Boil the rest of the water and sugar together and when cool add to the rest. Cover or fit a fermentation lock to the neck of the jar and continue to set in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.



Tea Wine

Ingredients
8 tsp tea
1 gallon water
1 lb raisins
2 lemons
3 lbs sugar
1 oz yeast

Make tea in the usual manner by steeping the 8 tsp tea in 1 quart of water just off the boil. Allow to sit for 10 minutes, then strain into a crock. Boil half the sugar in ½ gallon of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to tea. Add raisins and finely sliced lemons and their juice. Add yeast and ferment for 10 days, covered, stirring daily. Strain into a gallon jar. Boil rest of sugar in remainder of the water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the rest. Cover or fit fermentation lock to neck of jar. Leave in a warm place till all fermentation has ceased.



Yarrow Wine

Ingredients
2 to 3 oz dried yarrow flowers
2 lemons, quartered
2 oranges, quartered
3 lbs sugar
1 gallon water
½ oz baker's yeast or 1 pkg wine yeast

Place all ingredients (except sugar, yeast and water) into a crock. Pour ½ gallon of boiling water over the contents of the crock. Leave for 2 to 3 hours, covered. Boil half the sugar in 1 quart of water for 2 minutes and add this to the rest while still boiling. Mix well and when cool enough, add yeast. Cover again and ferment in a warm place for 10 days, stirring daily and covering immediately again. After 10 days, strain out the solids and wring out as dry as you can. Place the strained liquid into a gallon glass jug. Boil the other half of the sugar in the remaining quart of water for 2 minutes and when cool, add to the jug. Cover or fit a fermentation lock and continue to ferment in a warm place till all fermentation ceases.




©1999 by Ernestina Parziale, CH