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DISCLAIMER: These pages are presented solely as a source of INFORMATION and ENTERTAINMENT and to provide stern warnings against use where appropriate. No claims are made for the efficacy of any herb nor for any historical herbal treatment. In no way can the information provided here take the place of the standard, legal, medical practice of any country. Additionally, some of these plants are extremely toxic and should be used only by licensed professionals who have the means to process them properly into appropriate pharmaceuticals. One final note: many plants were used for a wide range of illnesses in the past, but be aware that many of the historical uses have proven to be ineffective for the problems to which they were applied.

(Pinus spp)


Has been used for respiratory (pectoral), hepatic and urinary system problems
Considered antiseptic.

Oil is warming, revivifying and inspires constancy, stability, durability. Stimulates these qualities to balance breathing and refresh and stimulate. Used for emotional stress.
Oil uses: diffusor, sauna, bath.

©2001 by Ernestina Parziale, CH