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Earthnotes Cooking 101

Metric Conv Chart Liquids Dry Weights & Measures
More Metrics Kitchen Equivalents Ingredients & Substitutes
Pans & Holding Volumes Candy Tests Grains

Have you ever been stymied by a recipe written in metrics? Or been in the middle of a recipe and your mind goes on vacation just when you need it to do a little math of how many cups, tsps, tbsps or whatever equals something else? Or maybe you didn't have "just" the right sized pan and needed to know if something else would fit the requirements. Obviously I've been there one too many times because I made up these tables to tape inside the doors of my kitchen cabinets where I could get to them in a hurry. These are weights and measurements of volume and liquids you might encounter in the kitchen. For charts pertaining to apothecary measures and weights that might be found in herbalism or on the medicine bottle, those can be found on the Herbalism page.

menuMetric Conversion Chart
To changetoMultiply by
gramsounces (avdp).0353
literspints (dry)1.8162
literspints (liq)2.1134
litersquarts (dry).9081
litersquarts (liq)1.0567

menuMore Metrics

1 ml=1/5 tsp
5 ml=1 tsp
15 ml=1 tbsp
34 ml=1 fl oz
100 ml=3.4 fl oz
240 ml=1 cup
1 liter=34 fl oz=4.2 cups=2.1 pints=1.06 quarts=0.26 gallon
1 gram=.035 oz
100 grams=3.5 oz
500 grams=1.10 lbs
1 kg=2.205 lbs=35 oz
1 cubic centimeter=0.061 cubic inch
1 cubic foot=7.481 gallons=28.316 cubic decimeters
1 cubic inch=0.554 fl oz=4.433 fluid drams=16.387 cubic centimeters


TIP: A paperclip weights approximately 1 gram.

ap = apothecary measure
1 drop=1 minim (ap)=1/60th fluid dram
1 dram (liq - US)=1/8 fl oz=0.226 cubic inch=3.697 ml=1 tsp
60 drops (minims)=1 fluid dram (ap)=1 tsp
1 measuring tsp=1/3 tbsp=1-1/3 fl drams=5 ml
1 measuring tbsp=3 tsp=4 fl drams=1/2 fl oz=15 ml
2 tbsp=1 liq ounce
4 tbsp=1/4 cup
5 tbsp=1/3 cup
1-1/2 oz=1 jigger
1/2 jigger=1 pony
8 tsp (fl. drams)=1 fluid ounce (ap)
8 fl oz=1 cup=1/2 pint
2 cups=1 pint
16 fl oz (ap)=1 pint (ap)=128 fl drams (ap)
2 pints=1 quart=32 fl oz=256 fl drams=4 cups
4 quarts=1 gal=128 fl oz=1,024 fl drams
1 milliliter=0.271 fl dram=16.231 minims=1/5 tsp
1 liq oz=29.574 ml
1 gill=4 fl oz=0.118 liter
4 gills (liq)=1 pint
2 pints=1 quart
4 quarts=1 gallon=8 pints=32 gills
1 liter=1.057 liq quarts=61.024 cubic inches
1 gallon (US)=231 cubic inches=3.785 liters=128 fl oz (US)
*1 barrel liquid=31 to 42 gallons
*Law allows for a variety of sizes: petroleum products are usually found in the larger sized barrels, while fermented/alcoholic beverages are to be found in the smaller sized barrels although federal law recognizes a 40 gallon barrel for proof spirits)

menuDry Weights & Measures

avdp = avoirdupois (common measurement in US)
1 ml=0.015 grain
1 grain=64.79891 ml
1 gram=15.432 grains=0.035 oz (avdp)
27.344 grains (advp)=1 dram (avdp)=1.772 grams
16 drams (advp)=1 oz (advp)=437.5 grains (advp)
16 oz (advp)=1 lb (advp)=256 drams (advp)=7,000 grains (advp)
1 kilogram=2.205 lb
2 pints=1 quart=67.2006 cubic inches
8 quarts=1 peck=16 pints=537.605 cubic inches
4 pecks=1 bushel=32 quarts=2,150.42 cubic inches
1 bushel (US struck measure)=2,150.42 cubic inches=35.238 liters
1 bushel (heaped)=2,747.715 cubic inches=1.278 bushels (struck measure)
(note: this is frequently recognized as 1-1/4 bushel, struck measure)
1 barrel (standard for fruits, vegetables and other dry good except cranberries)=105 dry quarts=3.281 bu (struck measure)=7,056 cubic inches
1 barrel (stand. cranberry)=5,286 cubic inches=86-45/64 dry quarts=2.709 bu (struck measure)
1 cord fire wood=128 cubic feet (a 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft stack of wood)

menuPans & Holding Volumes

4 cups=9" pie plate
8 x 1-1/4" layer cake pan
7-3/8 x 3-5/8 x 2-1/4" loaf pan
4-1/4 cups=8 x 2-1/4" ring mold
6 cups=8(or 9) x 11-1/2" layer cake pan
10" pie plate
8-1/2 x 35 or 8 x 25" baking pan
8" loaf pan
7-1/2 x 3" bundt tube
7 x 5-1/2 x 4" melon mold
7-1/2 cups=6 x 4-1/4" charlotte mold
8 cups=8 x 8 x 2" square pan
11 x 7 x 1-1/2" baking pan
9 x 5 x 3" loaf pan
9-1/4 x 2-3/4" ring mold
9-1/2 x 3-1/4" brioche pan
9 cups=9 x 3-1/2" fancy tube or bundt pan
10 cups=9 x 9 x 2" square pan
11-3/4 x 7-1/2 x 1-3/4" baking pan
15 x 10 x 1" jelly roll pan
12 cups=13-1/2 x 8-1/2 x 2" glass baking pan
9 x 3-1/2" angel cake pan
10 x 3-3/4" bundt or crownburst pan
9 x 3-1/2" fancy tube
8 x 8" spring form pan
15 cups=13 x 9 x 2" metal baking pan
16 cups=10 x 4" fancy tube mold (kugelhupf)
9 x 3" spring form pan
18 cups=10 x 4" angel cake pan
19 cups=14 x 10-1/2 x 2-1/2" roasting pan

menuCandy Tests
I must admit to always using a candy thermometer, but when reading a recipe the temperature isn't always given, so I find the chart useful as a reference.

ConsistencyTemperature (F)TestUses
Soft ball234ºto 240ºSyrup forms a soft ball when dropped into cold water; ball flattens when removedFudge, Penoche
Firm ball244ºto 248ºSyrup forms a ball when dopped into cold water; ball does not flaten when removedCaramels
Hard ball250ºto 266ºSyrup forms a ball when dropped into cold water; hard enough to hold its shape, yet still plasticPopcorn balls, Divinity
Soft Crack270ºto 290ºSyrup separates into threads when dropped into cold water; threads are hard but not brittleButterscotch, taffy
Hard crack300ºto 310ºSyrup separates into threads which are hard and brittle when dropped into cold waterPeanut Brittle
Caramel338ºBarley sugar becomes brownFlavor and color


Grain - 1 C. dryWaterCooking TimeYield
Barley (whole)3 cups1-1/4 hours3-1/2 cups
Black Beans4 cups1-1/2 hours2 cups
Black-eyed Peas3 cups1 hour2 cups
Buckwheat (kasha)2 cups15 min2-1/2 cups
Cornmeal, coarse (polenta)4 cups25 min3 cups
Garbanzos (chickpeas)4 cups3 hours2 cups
Great Northern Beans3-1/2 cups2 hours2 cups
Kidney Beans3 cups1-1/2 hours2 cups
Lentils3 cups1 hour2-1/4 cups
Limas2 cups1-1/2 hours1-1-4 cups
Limas, baby2 cups1-1/2 hours1-3/4 cups
Millet3 cups45 min3-1/2 cups
Peas, split3 cups1 hour2-1/4 cups
Pinto Beans3 cups2-1/2 hours2 cups
Red beans3 cups3 hours2 cups
Rice, brown2 cups1 hour3 cups
Rice, wild3 cups1 hr or more4 cups
Small white beans (navy, etc)2 cups1-1/2 hours2 cups
Soybeans3 cups3 hrs or more2 cups
Soy grits4 cups15 min2 cups
Wheat berries, whole3 cups2 hours2-2/3 cups
Wheat, bulgur2 cups15 to 20 min2-1/2 cups
Wheat, cracked2 cups25 min2-1/3 cups

©1998 by Ernestina Parziale