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EARTHNOTES COOKBOOK



Cookbook Menu
Basics Appetizers/Snacks Apples Baby Food Beans Beef Bread Bread, Quick Turkey


On This Page
Metric Conv ChartLiquidsDry Weights & Measures
More Metrics Kitchen EquivalentsIngredients & Equivalents
Pans & Holding VolumesCandy Tests Grains



Have you ever been stymied by a recipe written in metrics? Or been in the middle of a recipe and your mind goes on vacation just when you need it to do a little math of how many cups, tsps, tbsps or whatever equals something else? Or maybe you didn't have "just" the right sized pan and needed to know if something else would fit the requirements. Obviously I've been there one too many times because I made up these tables to tape inside the doors of my kitchen cabinets where I could get to them in a hurry. These are weights and measurements of volume and liquids you might encounter in the kitchen. For charts pertaining to apothecary measures and weights that might be found in herbalism or on the medicine bottle, those can be found on the Herbalism page.



topMetric Conversion Chart


To change to Multiply by
grainsgrams.0648
gramsgrains15.4324
gramsounces (avdp).0353
gramspounds.002205
literspints (dry)1.8162
literspints (liq)2.1134
litersquarts (dry).9081
litersquarts (liq)1.0567






topLiquids

*ap = apothecary measure

Tip: a paperclip weights approximately 1 gram.

1 drop = 1 minim (ap) = 1/60th fluid dram
1 dram (liq - US) = 1/8 fl oz = 0.226 cubic inch = 3.697 ml = 1 tsp
60 drops (minims) = 1 fluid dram (ap) = 1 tsp
(1 measuring tsp = 1/3 tbsp = 1-1/3 fl drams = 5 ml)
(1 measuring tbsp = 3 tsp = 4 fl drams = 1/2 fl oz = 15 ml)
2 tbsp = 1 liq ounce
4 tbsp = 1/4 cup
5 tbsp = 1/3 cup
1-1/2 oz = 1 jigger
1/2 jigger = 1 pony
8 tsp (fl. drams) = 1 fluid ounce (ap)
8 fl oz = 1 cup = 1/2 pint
2 cups = 1 pint
16 fl oz (ap) = 1 pint (ap) = 128 fl drams (ap)
2 pints = 1 quart = 32 fl oz = 256 fl drams = 4 cups
4 quarts = 1 gal = 128 fl oz = 1,024 fl drams
1 milliliter = 0.271 fl dram = 16.231 minims = 1/5 tsp
1 liq oz = 29.574 ml
1 gill = 4 fl oz = 0.118 liter
4 gills (liq) = 1 pint
2 pints = 1 quart
4 quarts = 1 gallon = 8 pints = 32 gills
1 liter = 1.057 liq quarts = 61.024 cubic inches
1 gallon (US) = 231 cubic inches = 3.785 liters = 128 fl oz (US)
1 barrel liquid = 31 to 42 gallons
(law allows for a variety of sizes: petroleum products are usually found in the larger sized barrels, while fermented/alcoholic beverages are to be found in the smaller sized barrels although federal law recognizes a 40 gallon barrel for proof spirits)



topDry Weights & Measures

*avdp = avoirdupois (common measurement in US)
1 ml = 0.015 grain
1 grain = 64.79891 ml
1 gram = 15.432 grains = 0.035 oz (avdp)
27.344 grains (advp) = 1 dram (avdp) = 1.772 grams
16 drams (advp) = 1 oz (advp) = 437.5 grains (advp)
16 oz (advp) = 1 lb (advp) = 256 drams (advp) = 7,000 grains (advp)
1 kilogram = 2.205 lb
2 pints = 1 quart = 67.2006 cubic inches
8 quarts = 1 peck = 16 pints = 537.605 cubic inches
4 pecks = 1 bushel = 32 quarts = 2,150.42 cubic inches
1 bushel (US struck measure) = 2,150.42 cubic inches = 35.238 liters
1 bushel (heaped) = 2,747.715 cubic inches = 1.278 bushels (struck measure) (note: this is frequently recognized as 1-1/4 bushel, struck measure)
1 barrel (standard for fruits, vegetables and other dry good except cranberries) = 105 dry quarts = 3.281 bu (struck measure)= 7,056 cubic inches
1 barrel (stand. cranberry) = 5,286 cubic inches = 86-45/64 dry quarts = 2.709 bu (struck measure)
1 cord fire wood = 128 cubic feet (a 4 ft x 4 ft x 8 ft stack of wood)



topMore Metrics

1 ml = 1/5 tsp
5 ml = 1 tsp
15 ml = 1 tbsp
34 ml = 1 fl oz
100 ml = 3.4 fl oz
240 ml = 1 cup
1 liter = 34 fl oz = 4.2 cups = 2.1 pints = 1.06 quarts = 0.26 gallon
1 gram = .035 oz
100 grams = 3.5 oz
500 grams = 1.10 lbs
1 kg - 2.205 lbs = 35 oz
1 cubic centimeter = 0.061 cubic inch
1 cubic foot - 7.481 gallons - 28.316 cubic decimeters
1 cubic inch - 0.554 fl oz - 4.433 fluid drams = 16.387 cubic centimeters



topKitchen Equivalents

1 dash = less than 1/8 tsp
a few grains = less than 1/8 tsp (a few "grains" in a kitchen measurement is not to be confused with the formal apothecary or avoirdupois "grain" measurement)
1 minim = 1 drop
1/5 tsp = 20 drops = 1 milliliter
1 tsp = 5 ml = 60 drops (or minims) = 1 dram = 4.2 grams
2 tsp = 10 ml
3 tsp = 1 tbsp = 15 ml = 14 grams
1 fl oz = 30 ml (by weight but 34 ml by capacity) = 28 grams
1/16 cup = 1 tbsp
1/8 cup = 2 tbsp
1/6 cup = 2 tbsp + 2 tsp
1/5 cup = 50 ml
1/4 cup = 4 tbsp
1/3 cup = 5 tbsp + 1 tsp
3/8 cup = 6 tbsp
1/2 cup = 8 tbsp
3/4 cup = 12 tbsp
2/3 cup = 10 tbsp + 2 tsp
1 cup = 240 ml = 8 fl oz = 1/2 pint (liq) = 16 tbsp = 48 tsp
2 cups = 1 pint = 470 ml
2 pints = 1 quart = .95 liter = 4 cups
1 liter = 34 fl oz = 4.2 cups = 2.1 pints = 1.06 quarts = 0.26 gallon
4 quarts = 1 gallon = 3.8 liters
8 quarts = 1 peck
4 pecks = 1 bushel
1 pound = 454 grams = 16 oz
1 gram = .035 oz
100 grams = 3.5 oz
500 grams = 1.20 lbs
1 kg = 2.205 lbs or 35 oz
1000 grams = 1 kilogram
1 glassful = 8 fl oz = 16 tbsp = 60 fl drams - 240 ml
1 teacupful = 4 fl oz = 8 tbsp = 30 drams = 120 ml
1 wineglassful = 2 fl oz = 4 tbsp = 15 fl drams = 60 ml
1 tbsp = 1/2 fl oz = 4 fl drams = 15 ml
1 dessertspoonful = 2 fl drams = 8 ml



Ingredients & Equivalents

Beans

  • Kidney 1 lb = 2-1/2 cups dry = 7 cups cooked
  • Navy 1 lb = 2-1/2 cups dry = 7 cups cooked
  • Split Peas lb = 2 cups dried = 5 cups cooked
Baking powder 1 cup = 5-1/2 oz
Bread 1 slice = 1/4 to 1/3 cup dry crumbs
Butter 1 lb = 2 cups; 1/2 lb = 2 sticks; 1 stick = 1/2 cup or 8 tbsp
Cabbage 1 med. head = 3 lbs; 1 lb = 4 cups shredded
Cheese
  • 1/4 lb grated = 1 cup
  • 1 lb = 2-2/3 cup
  • Cheddar l lb = 4 cups grated
  • Cottage cheese 1 lb = 2 cups
  • Cream cheese 3-oz pkg = 6 tbsp; 6-oz pkg = 1 cup
Chocolate 1 square = 1 oz = 3 tbsp grated = 3 tbsp melted
Chocolate chips 6-oz pkg = 1 scant cup; 12-oz pkg = 1-7/8 cup
Cocoa 1 lb = 4 cups
Coconut 1 lb = 5 cups shredded and lightly packed
Coffee l lb = 5 cups = 40 to 50 cups of brewed
Cornmeal l lb = 3 cups; 1 cup = 4 cups cooked
Cornstarch l lb = 3 cups
Crab meat 1 lb = 2 cups
Crackers
  • Graham crackers 1 cup crumbs = 12 to 15 crackers
  • Soda crackers 1 cup crumbs = 20 to 23 crackers
Cream 1/2 pint heavy = 2 cups whipped
Dates 1 lb pitted = 2 cups = 2-1/2 cups chopped
Eggs (large)
  • 1 = 1/4 cup
  • 4 to 5 = 1 cup
  • 9 = l lb
  • 7 to 9 whites = 1 cup
  • 12 to 15 yolks = 1 cup
Figs l lb = 3 cups chopped
Flour
  • All purpose 1 lb = 4 cups sifted
  • Cake flour 1 lb = 4-1/2 cups sifted
  • Graham flour l lb = 3-1/2 cups
  • Whole wheat l lb = 3-1/2 cups
Fruit
  • Apples 1 lb (3 medium) = 2 to 2-1/2 cups pared and sliced; 2 quarts = 3 lbs
  • Apricots 1 lb = 3 cups dried = 6 cups cooked
  • Bananas 1 lb = 3 large with skins off = 2 to 2-1/2 cups sliced
  • Fruit peels 1/2 lb = 1-1/2 cups cut up
  • Lemon or lime 1 med = 3 tbsp juice; 5 to 8 = 1 cup juice; 1 rind = 1 tbsp grated
  • Oranges 1 med. = 2 to 3 tbsp juice; 3 to 4 = 1 cup juice; 1 rind = 2 tbsp grated
Fruit, candied 1/2 lb = 1-1/2 cups cut up
Gelatin, plain 1 envelope = 1 tbsp dry
Herbs 1 tsp dry = 1 tbsp fresh
Marshmallows
  • 1 large = 10 minatures
  • 10 large = 1 cup miniature (lightly packed)
  • 100 mini = 1 cup (lightly packed)
  • 1/2 lb = 16 regular
  • 1 lb = 8 cups miniature = 75 to 80 regular
  • 10 oz bag = 6 cups minature
Milk, canned
  • Evaporated 5 oz can = 2/3 cup; 14-1/2 oz can = 1-2/3 cups
  • Sweetened Condensed 14 oz can = 1-1/4 cup
Mustard, prepared 1 tbsp = 1 tsp dry
Nuts
  • 1 lb nutmeats, chopped = 4 cups
  • Almonds 1 lb (in shell) = 1-3/4 cups nutmeats
  • Almonds 1 lb blanched and whole = 3-1/2 cups
  • Pecans 1 lb (in shell) = 2-1/4 cups shelled; 1 lb already shelled = 4 cups
  • Peanuts 1 lb (in shell) = 2-1/4 cups shelled; 1 lb already shelled = 3 cups
  • Walnuts 1 lb (in shell) = 1-2/3 cups shelled; 1 lb already shelled = 4 cups
  • Walnuts, raw 1 lb = 5 cups raw = 8 cups cooked
Oatmeal 1 lb raw = 5 cups = 9 cups cooked
Onion 1 med. = 1/2 cup chopped
Pasta
  • Macaroni l lb = 4 cups raw = 8 cups cooked
  • Noodles 1 lb = 6 cups raw = 9 cups cooked; 1 cup = 1-1/2 cups cooked
  • Spaghetti 1 lb = 4 cups raw = 6 to 8 cups cooked
Peas 1 lb (in pod) = 1 cup shelled
Pepper, green 1 large = 1 cup diced
Popcorn 1 cup raw = 5 quarts popped
Potato
  • White l lb = 3 to 4 medium = 2 cups cooked and mashed
  • Sweet l lb = 3 medium - 2 cups cooked and mashed
Raisins 1 lb seeded = 2-1/2 cups; 1 lb seedless = 3 cups
Rice 1 lb = 2 cups dried = 4 cups cooked
Rice, instant l cup = 2 cups cooked
Shortening 1 lb = 2 cups
Stuffings
  • Herb-seasoned 8 oz bag = 4-1/2 cups seasoned dry bread cubes
  • Croutons 11 oz bag = 10 cups (if large sized cubes)
Sugar
  • Granulated 1 lb = 2 cups
  • Brown 1 lb = 2-1/4 cups
  • Confectioners' lb = 3-1/2 cups sifted
  • Cubes 1 lb = 96 to 160 cubes
Tomato 1 lb = 3 to 4 medium
Wafers, Vanilla 24 wafers = 1 cup crumbs
Whipped toppings, frozen 9 oz container = 3 cups; 12 oz container = 4 cups
Yeast 2 oz cake = 3 pkgs dry yeast
Yeast dry 1 envelope = 1 tbsp



topPans & Holding Volumes

4 cups =

  • 9" pie plate
  • 8 x 1-1/4" layer cake pan
  • 7-3/8 x 3-5/8 x 2-1/4" loaf pan
4-1/4 cups = 8 x 2-1/4" ring mold

6 cups =

  • 8(or 9) x 11-1/2" layer cake pan
  • 10" pie plate
  • 8-1/2 x 35 or 8 x 25" baking pan
  • 8" loaf pan
  • 7-1/2 x 3" bundt tube
  • 7 x 5-1/2 x 4" melon mold
7-1/2 cups = 6 x 4-1/4" charlotte mold

8 cups =

  • 8 x 8 x 2" square pan
  • 11 x 7 x 1-1/2" baking pan
  • 9 x 5 x 3" loaf pan
  • 9-1/4 x 2-3/4" ring mold
  • 9-1/2 x 3-1/4" brioche pan
9 cups = 9 x 3-1/2" fancy tube or bundt pan

10 cups =

  • 9 x 9 x 2" square pan
  • 11-3/4 x 7-1/2 x 1-3/4" baking pan
  • 15 x 10 x 1" jelly roll pan
12 cups =
  • 13-1/2 x 8-1/2 x 2" glass baking pan
  • 9 x 3-1/2" angel cake pan
  • 10 x 3-3/4" bundt or crownburst pan
  • 9 x 3-1/2" fancy tube
  • 8 x 8" spring form pan
15 cups = 13 x 9 x 2" metal baking pan

16 cups =

  • 10 x 4" fancy tube mold (kugelhupf)
  • 9 x 3" spring form pan
18 cups = 10 x 4" angel cake pan

19 cups = 14 x 10-1/2 x 2-1/2" roasting pan



topCandy Tests

I must admit to always using a candy thermometer, but when reading a recipe the temperature isn't always given, so I find the chart useful as a reference.

ConsistencyTemperature (F)TestUses
Soft ball234ºto 240ºSyrup forms a soft ball when
dropped into cold water; ball
flattens when removed
Fudge, Penoche
Firm ball244ºto 248ºSyrup forms a ball when dopped
into cold water; ball
does not flaten when removed
Caramels
Hard ball250ºto 266ºSyrup forms a ball when dropped
into cold water; hard enough
to hold its shape, yet still plastic
Popcorn balls, Divinity
Soft Crack270ºto 290ºSyrup separates into threads
when dropped into cold water;
threads are hard but not brittle
Butterscotch, taffy
Hard crack300ºto 310ºSyrup separates into threads
which are hard and brittle
when dropped into cold water
Peanut Brittle
Caramel338ºBarley sugar becomes brownFlavor and color




topGrains

Grain - 1 C. dryWaterCooking TimeYield
Barley (whole)3 cups1-1/4 hours3-1/2 cups
Black Beans4 cups1-1/2 hours2 cups
Black-eyed Peas3 cups1 hour2 cups
Buckwheat (kasha)2 cups15 min2-1/2 cups
Cornmeal, coarse
(polenta)
4 cups25 min3 cups
Garbanzos
(chickpeas)
4 cups3 hours2 cups
Great Northern Beans3-1/2 cups2 hours2 cups
Kidney Beans3 cups1-1/2 hours2 cups
Lentils3 cups1 hour2-1/4 cups
Limas2 cups1-1/2 hours1-1-4 cups
Limas, baby2 cups1-1/2 hours1-3/4 cups
Millet3 cups45 min3-1/2 cups
Peas, split3 cups1 hour2-1/4 cups
Pinto Beans3 cups2-1/2 hours2 cups
Red beans3 cups3 hours2 cups
Rice, brown2 cups1 hour3 cups
Rice, wild3 cups1 hr or more4 cups
Small white beans
(navy, etc)
2 cups1-1/2 hours2 cups
Soybeans3 cups3 hrs or more2 cups
Soy grits4 cups15 min2 cups
Wheat berries, whole3 cups2 hours2-2/3 cups
Wheat, bulgur2 cups15 to 20 min2-1/2 cups
Wheat, cracked2 cups25 min2-1/3 cups



©1998 by Ernestina Parziale

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